North Korea has tested parts of its biggest intercontinental ballistic missile in its two recent launches, U.S. and South Korean militaries said, a suggestion it will likely fire that weapon soon to put a spy satellite into orbit in what would be its most significant provocation in five years, according to AP.
North Korea’s neighbors detected two ballistic launches last week. North Korea later said it was testing cameras and other systems to be installed on a spy satellite but didn’t disclose what missiles or rockets it used.
Experts say North Korea could launch a spy satellite ahead of its major political anniversary in April — the 110th birthday of state founder Kim Il Sung, the late grandfather of Kim Jong Un. Jung, the analyst, said he thinks the launch will likely come in early May, just before a new South Korean president takes office later that month.
Kirby said the U.S. military ordered “enhanced readiness” among its ballistic missile defense forces in the region and intensified surveillance activities off the Korean Peninsula’s west coast.
The launch, if made, would be the North’s most serious provocative act since its three ICBM tests in 2017.
In 2018, North Korea unilaterally suspended long-range and nuclear tests before it entered now-dormant denuclearization talks with the United States. The talks collapsed in 2019 due to disputes over U.S.-led sanctions on the North. Top Pyongyang officials recently hinted at lifting the 2018 weapons test moratorium.
After analyzing them, the U.S. and South Korean militaries said they concluded they involved an ICBM under development that North Korea first unveiled during a military parade in October 2020.
“The purpose of these tests, which did not demonstrate ICBM range, was likely to evaluate this new system before conducting a test at full range in the future, potentially disguised as a space launch,” Pentagon press secretary John Kirby said in a statement Thursday.
South Korea’s Defense Ministry released a similar assessment and said North Korea must immediately stop any act that raises tensions and regional security concerns.
That ICBM cited in the U.S. and the South Korean statements refers to Hwasong-17, the North’s biggest missile that can fly up to 15,000 kilometers (9,320 miles), a range enough to strike anywhere in the U.S. and beyond. The 25-meter (82 foot) -long missile, which was shown again at a defense exhibition in Pyongyang last year, has yet to be test-launched.
North Korea has already demonstrated a potential to reach the U.S. mainland with flight tests of its other ICBMs called Hwasong-14 and Hwasong-15, in 2017. Some analysts say developing a larger missile could mean the country is trying to arm its long-range weapons with multiple warheads to overcome missile defense systems.
The North’s two missile launches were the latest in a string of tests in recent months, an apparent attempt to modernize its arsenal and apply pressure on the Biden administration as nuclear talks remain stalled.
Experts expects North Korea to launch the Hwasong-17 missile for largely two military purposes — testing key parts and putting its first functioning spy satellite in space. They say North Korea may claim to fire a rocket, not a missile, for a satellite launch, but the U.N. and others have viewed past satellite launches as disguised tests of its long-range missile technology.
Kwon Yong Soo, a former professor at Korea National Defense University in South Korea, said the estimated thrust of the Hwasong-17 suggests it can be used to place multiple reconnaissance satellites into orbit in a single launch. He said North Korea would also want to test the missile’s engine parts.
Kwon said the liquid-fueled Hwasong-17 may be too big and lacks mobility given North Korea’s poor road conditions. He said its launch could be a show of force. But Kwon said that a spy satellite could sharply increase the North’s capability to monitor the movements of U.S. aircraft carriers and other strategic assets.
“If you want to use long-range strikes on moving targets like aircraft carriers, you need to receive data on their movement from satellites,” Kwon said. “If North Korea puts a spy satellite (in space), that will be an epoch-making development.”
Jung Chang Wook, head of the Korea Defense Study Forum think tank in Seoul, said North Korea would want to test technologies that ensure multiple warheads of a missile could survive the extreme heat and pressure after reentry from space.
Jung and Kwon said they both believe North Korea has acquired the reentry vehicle technology for a single warhead missile, an assessment that some analysts dispute.
A spy satellite and a missile with multiple warheads were among an array of sophisticated weapons that North Korean leader Kim Jong Un has vowed to develop to cope with what he calls American hostility such as economic sanctions.
“If North Korea succeeds in its test of a reentry vehicle for multiple warheads, that will tremendously boost its leverage in its negotiations with the United States,” Jung said. “It could be a game changer.”
On Friday, the North’s state media said Kim visited the country’s satellite launch facility and ordered officials to modernize and expand it to fire a variety of rockets from there. Earlier this week, he also said that North Korea needs reconnaissance satellites to monitor “the aggression troops of the U.S. imperialism and its vassal forces.”
North Korea conducted two successful satellite launches from Sohae Satellite Launching Ground in the northwest in 2012 and 2016. It said they were Earth observation satellites developed under its peaceful space development program, but outside experts said they were designed to spy on its rivals, though there is no evidence that those satellites ever transmitted images.